I. Introduction 1. Introduction This standard is the former State Quality and Technical Supervision in 1998 approved March 20, requires 98 October 1 implementation. This is after the promulgation of the first modification GB150-89, GB150-98 China is currently the pressure vessel standard system of basic standards, based on the standard service for large wide range of products, the use of common technology, in a pivotal position in the industry, GB150 modify other relevant standards required to make the appropriate changes. Such as: GB151, GB12337, JB4710 "steel tower vessel", JB4731 and so on. 2, foreign standards, norms China: JB / T4735-97 "welded steel pressure vessel" GB150-98 "steel pressure vessel" JB4732-95 "steel pressure vessel - Analysis and Design Standards" America: ASMEⅧ-1 " Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, "Section VIII Division 1 article" conventional pressure vessel design "ASMEⅧ-2" Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, "Chapter VIII Subsection 2" pressure vessel analysis and design "ASMEⅧ-3" Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, "first eight volumes 3 minutes articles "pressure vessel design fatigue" Japan: JIS B8270 "pressure vessel" (based on the standard) JIS B8271-8285 "single standard pressure vessel" Britain: BS5500 "non-directly affected by the fire, pressure vessel," Germany: AD "pressure Vessel Code, "TRB" Technical Specification for pressure vessel "France: CODAP" non-directly affected by the fire, pressure vessel construction norms "
3, the basic principles of GB150 reference or equivalent with a ASMEⅧ-1, JIS B8270, and reflect the Chinese characteristics, considering China's actual conditions, such as: equivalent to - roundness concept Appendix B detonation 1000M / S with reference to the use of - welded joint classification (formerly butt, fillet, longitudinal seam, girth) Chinese characteristics - weld repair times, not more than twice. Second, the adaptation range 1, GB150-1998 "steel pressure vessel" is the steel pressure vessel design, manufacture, testing and acceptance criteria. This standard applies as follows: 1) design pressure greater than or equal 0.1MPa, less steel pressure vessel and vacuum higher than 35MPa 2000mmH2O steel pressure vessel; the set 2), according to the design temperature range allows the use of steel temperature OK; 3), the jurisdiction of the vessel and its pressure even as the overall connectivity components, namely the opening to take over the first ring to the joint face and the outer groove pipe connections; first screw threaded joints; bolt The first fastening flange sealing surface; the first sealing surface of the pipe is connected; receivership, manholes, hand holes, etc. The pressure head, flat cap and fasteners; non-pressure components and pressure elements of welded joints; directly connected overpressure safety relief device and accessories on the container on the container. 2. Scope GB150-98 not apply to the following nine container: 1) direct flame heating the container; 2), by the radiation effects of container; 3) regular container handling; 4), such as pumps, compressors, turbines or hydraulic cylinders rotating or reciprocating machinery and equipment, since a whole or as an integral member of compression chamber; 5), the design pressure is lower than 0.1MPa container; 6), the vacuum vessel of less than 0.02MPa; 7 ), the project volume of less than 450L containers; 8), fatigue analysis required to do container; 9), pressure vessels have been under the jurisdiction of other industry standards. Such as forging containers
Third, the definition and interpretation of a term, the maximum working pressure - means under normal operating conditions, the container (or heat exchanger shell jacket tube or external pressure vessel) at the top of the maximum pressure that may arise. 2, the design pressure - pressure means chosen to determine the thickness of the container body (or shell heat exchangers and other pressure parts), and its value should not be less than the maximum working pressure (design pressure in the corresponding design temperature See GB150-98, GB151-02). 3, the metal temperature - container means (or heat exchanger) along the cross-sectional thickness of each pressure-receiving element average temperature (in any case, the surface temperature of the metal member may not exceed the allowable temperature of steel). 4, the design temperature - means the container (or heat) in normal operating conditions, in the corresponding design pressure, metal temperature set pressure components (heat exchanger tube should be specific conditions, shell of determined separately), the value of not less than the highest possible element metallic metal temperature of the metal temperature below 0 ℃, the design temperature shall not exceed the lowest possible element metallic metal temperature. 5, the test temperature - time means the pressure test container (or heat) shell metal temperature. 6. Volume - refers to the geometric volume of the pressure vessel, from design drawings marked sizing (without regard to manufacturing tolerances) and in the round, without deducting the volume of the internal volume of the accessory. 7, thickness - 1) plus the amount of the thickness of C (C = C1 + C2) - refers to the thickness of steel plate or negative deviation C1 and C2 corrosion allowance sum. 2) refers to meet the minimum thickness δmin-- manufacturing process requirements, and transportation and installation of the stiffness requirements, according to engineering practice to determine the housing element does not include the minimum thickness of the corrosion allowance. 3) calculate the mean thickness δ-- thickness obtained according to a formula, excluding the thickness of the additional amount. 4) design thickness - Refers to calculate the thickness of the corrosion allowance sum. 5) refers to the nominal thickness δn-- design thickness plus the thickness of steel to steel round standard thickness negative deviation upwards, that is the thickness of the pattern indicated (to the container body, under any circumstances, δn≮δmin + C) . 6) refers to the nominal thickness of the effective thickness δe-- subtracting the thickness of the additional amount.
8, the main pressure parts - refers to the pressure vessel pressure parts of the cylinder, head (cap), spherical shell plate heat exchanger tube sheets and tubes, expansion joints, opening reinforcement plates, equipment flange , M36 bolt above the main equipment, manhole covers, manhole flange, manhole diameter greater than 250mm of taking over and over. 9, flammable fluids - refers to the mixing of the air less than 10% of the lower explosive limit, or the difference between the upper and lower explosion greater than or equal to 20% of the gas. Such as: methylamine, ethane, ethylene, methane, hydrogen, propane, propylene, etc., when the medium is a mixed substance should be classified in accordance with the principles of the composition of the medium described above, there are technological design or production technology sector unit design unit decide whether flammable media. 10, cryogenic vessels - refers to the design temperature is equal to or lower than -20 ℃ pressure vessel.
1, the scope of this chapter applicable to the design temperature is higher than -20 ℃ single welded steel pressure vessels, multilayered bandage pressure vessels, pressure vessels and heat set forge welding (new) pressure vessel. (1) vessel design temperature limits designed to limit temperature is equal to or lower than -20 ℃ pressure vessel belongs to cryogenic vessels, in order to prevent brittle fracture at low temperatures, their selection, design, manufacturing, testing is required for some special provisions Therefore in Appendix C of this standard made special provisions. Limit pressure vessel fabrication method (2) a method for manufacturing the main forging, forging, welding, casting, and riveting, this chapter applies only to manufacturing to welding, forging pressure vessel welding method based products. (3) restrictions on the housing structure type pressure vessel shell structure type can be roughly divided into two categories integral and modular. Integral - refers to a material thickness of strength, stiffness, stability from a piece of sheet steel to meet. Such as: single rolling, forging container combined - that meets the material thickness strength, stiffness, stability of the pieces (pieces) steel components. Such as: multi-layer bandaging, thermal units, multi-layer container around the board in this chapter apply only to the monolithic and multi-dressing, heat set container structure.
2. Classification of welded joints welded pressure vessels main pressure part of the joint is divided into A, B, C, D four categories: A class of welded joints: longitudinal joints cylindrical part (except container laminate layer multilayer bandage longitudinal joints), Central to the joint ball head and the cylinder is connected, all kinds of convex head all the tailor-welded joints and embedded takeover connected with the housing butt joints, are Class A weld joints. Class B weld joints: joints, long neck flange and take over part of the connector housing connected to the connector ring, conical head and took over the small end of the connection, are class B weld joints. Except it has been defined as A, C, Class D welded joints. Class C weld joints: flat cap, tube plate and cylinder non butt joints, flanges connected with the housing, take over the connection joints, within the cylinder head and the lap joint and multi-layer laminates wrapped container longitudinal joints , belong to the class C weld joints. Class D welded joints: the takeover of the housing connected to the manhole joints, flanges, reinforcing rings, etc., are Class D welded joints, except it has been defined as A, Class B welded joints. Description: 1), the original GB150-89 called "seam", called non-standard, but the habit is called, and the international community is not uniform, and our welding terminology is different, it was renamed "welded joints." Weld - refers only to the molten metal, i.e. welding meat. Welded joints - the sum of the weld fusion line, heat-affected zone. 2), to change the original classification of claims by location, classification map of welded joints from ASMEⅧ-1 standard, but it has its characteristics. 3), GB150-98 classification revised accordingly, such as: Class B, the increase in long-necked flange and take over the connectors; Class D, increasing the reinforcement ring. 4), GB150-98 of A, B, C, Class D classification of welded joints in the pressure vessel using only other welded joints instead of this classification, such as: boilers, pipes and other "content regulation" is not Click classification. (B) a cold forming process, corrections 1), 10.2.1 its grinding depth greater than 3% of the cladding thickness, ...... should its grinding depth greater than 30% compound layer thickness, ...... 2), 10.2 .4.1 composite steel counterpart wrong side of b is not more than 5% steel cladding thickness, ......; ...... should be 50%, and ....
Because of 3% and 5% of the requirements can not be achieved .2, thinning, grinding requirements (see 10.2.1) 1), convex head, hot roll festival, after forming the thickness ≥δn-C12), cold roll tube section, feeding the steel thickness δs≥δn-C13), and the thickness of the relevant amount calculated thickness (δ), the design thickness (δ + C2), the nominal thickness (δn), the effective thickness (δe), the thickness of steel cast material (δs) wall thickness of the additional amount (C), the thickness of the negative bias quantity (C1), corrosion allowance (C2), working thickness reduction (C3) nominal thickness δn = δ + C1 + C2 + rounded amount effective thickness δe = δ-C1-C2 (feeding the steel thickness) δs not explain, it is difficult to define, GB150-98 proposed (feeding plate thickness) δs requirements, problems remain unresolved C3 .4), grinding requirements are detailed in 10.2.13, groove surface requirements 10.2.21) limit groove surface defects 2) provision of high-strength steel bevel surface inspection method 3) groove surface cleanliness requirements
4, head (10.2.3) 1), patchwork pitch 3δs not less than 100, patchwork before forming, stamping part by the weld should be ground flush with the base metal (try not patchwork); head straight vertical crease depth edge section should not be less than 1.5mm (10.2.3.4) 2), model checking (10.2.3.2) GB150 using L≥3 / 4 Di, such as provisions whole model, many head machining difficult qualified.; The measurement gap (concave, convex) ≤1.25% Di (JB4732 full model) full model: American convex 1.25% Di; concave 1.25% Di (ASMEⅧ-1) Japan convex 1.25% Di; concave 1.25% Di (JISB8243) 0.625% Di (JISB8270) biggest role model checking can distinguish oval dish head, but in the large chain range, the difference is not good; the gap is difficult to distinguish the shape of .5, cylindrical shell body (wall thickness was originally used δn, is now δs) 1) due to the wrong side of the container forge welding machining, it is the wrong side of the requirements of high volume b (1 / 8δs and ≤5mm); (10.2.4) 2) due to the straightness JB4710 corresponding provisions of straightness, GB150 can unify straightness 1 ‰, when the container is longer than 30m, according to JB4710; (10.2.4.4) 3) refers to the tube section JB741-80 roundness, GB150 means integrally formed after the container shell , forge welding machine container processing requirements increase due to (1 ‰). (10.2.4.10) 4) E angularity with a chord length equal to 1 / 6Di, and not less than 300mm model or external model checking, the E value is not greater than ( δs / 10 + 2) mm, not more than 5mm. (10.2.4.2) 5) additional cylinder assembly section shall not be less than the required length of 300mm. (10.2.4.5) (same with JB4732)
Six, welding a welding procedure qualification 1) product test plate (or sample) after the inspection, but only to check the mechanical properties of the analogy. 2) before welding procedure qualification conducted effective measures to ensure the mechanical properties of welded joints and taken instructive. Manufacturing units should take the initiative to do the welding procedure qualification, and in practical work applications. 3) the practice of the United States abroad - must be heat welded joints. User requirements, make test panels, mainly by doing assurance assessment process. Japan - that make assessment, they do test plate (JISB8270 third container P <1mPa generally can not do the test plate) Europe - mainly doing assessment process, similar to the United States. 2 welded reinforcement (10.3.3.1) 1) cancel the difference between welding methods to material differences between the different forms of groove, different requirements. (JB4732 to material differences). Welding method to distinguish unscientific. 2) welded reinforcement for A, Class B is 0 (flush with the base material) best, C, Class D undercut the best mark in the pattern .3 (10.3.3.4) standard specifies the permitted and allowed to undercut The conditions, the actual manufacturing process, try to eliminate undercut undercut not only harm the existence of any benefit. (JB4732 not allowed, φ are 1)
Seven, heat a clear classification 1) post-weld heat treatment (eliminate welding stress, improve organization) 2) restore the mechanical properties of heat (cold hardening) 3) to improve the mechanical properties of heat treatment (to improve the strength, toughness) 4) elimination of hydrogen for 2 conditions 1) post-weld heat treatment (10.4.1) on the material, thickness, preheat temperature, stress corrosion tendency, extreme or high hazard require medium 2) restore the mechanical properties (10.4.2) warm working cold deformation, the deformation and δs , Di concerned, as the case may be. (c, 16mnR, δ <3% Di, other low alloy steel δ <2.5% Di, can not do) 3) improve the mechanical properties (10.4.4) supplier status with the use of heat When the state is consistent, the manufacturing process is not yet destroyed, you can not do as quenched and tempered steel, the process is not damaged, do not conduct heat .4) cut the hydrogen treatment can be achieved by eliminating welding stress (10.4.3) 3, the method (welding After the heat treatment) 1) refers to the weld heat treatment, the overall points, segments, local 10.4.5.22) A class should be whole, or section (depending on the length of the container and heat treatment plant capacity) 3) B, C, D, and spherical head A class with a cylinder connected to the local and defective welding parts (mainly carried out after the repair) (10.4.5.3) 4 process requirements (10.4.5.1) (same with JB4732)
1) Furnace (post-weld heat treatment furnace heating) (T <400 ℃) 2) temperature difference between the heating rate and temperature elevation. (Θ≤5000 / δs ℃ / h, and ≤200 ℃ / h, the minimum for 50 ℃ / h) 3) when the holding temperature difference (when incubated △ T≤65 ℃) 4) furnace atmosphere (heat treatment apparatus is required, to prevent excessive oxidation of the surface of the weldment) 5) cooling rate (θ≤6500 / δs ℃ / h, and ≤260 ℃ / h, as small as 50 ℃ / h) 6) furnace temperature (T <400 ℃) 7) baked environment (cooling in still air)
Eight, test plates and sample a test board 1) The role: the mechanical properties of welded joints on product inspection afterwards, hoping representative performance .2) approach: try to simulate good, fully representative, due to multi-weld, multi welder, so greater limitations .3) need to do the test board conditions: (10.5.1.1) A, Material: Cr-Mo low alloy steel; B, thickness: δs> 15MnVR 20mm of, 15MnNbR; C, temperature: design temperature <-10 ℃ when, δs> 20R 12mm of, δs> 16MnR 20mm; the design temperature <0 ℃, ≥-10 ℃ when, δs> 20R 25mm of, δs> 16MnR 38mm of; D, Security: costumes degree of toxicity is extremely or highly hazardous media; E, there is a heat treatment requirements; 2, cancel welding process discipline inspection test plate 3, forge welding containers do forensic preparation class ring GB150-98 new forensic 10.5.11 B ring welded joints, testing and assessment. forge welding container multi-Cr-Mo steel, need to do a great possibility forensic ring, the other class B weld joints generally do not do. Nine, non-destructive testing (10.8) 1, Method A, internal buried defects, can be ray Detection (RT), ultrasonic testing (UT) according to standards can be used as equivalent. Abroad: US - mainly in RT, UT vice; Germany - mainly in UT, RT deputy. B, surface defects, can be magnetic particle testing (MT), penetrant testing (PT) can be equivalent to the use of the standard requirements. 2. Select principle
A, according to material selection; B, according to the structure of choice; C, according to the thickness of the selection; D, according to the probability of selection may have defects .3, select Programs A, set designer by the container, which provides a clear pattern; B, if the pattern is not clear NDT methods, the manufacturer can choose according to their characteristics, the consequences arising therefrom by the designer responsible. 4, testing requirements A, three requirements - all local, can not be; B, GB150-98 emphasize that the entire container welded joints 100 percent testing, rather than the length of a bar before testing of welded joints. C, for some special welded joints 100% (10.8.2.2 abcde) such as: local container inspection, the inspection length counted in the local inspection length, together, a passing grade according to local requirements, but does not appear a container different parts of different qualification levels .D, specifies when unable to RT or UT, does not allow for testing, welding method is guaranteed. (deleted the original provisions of the weld coefficient φ = 0.6) E, clear DN <250mm takeover Butt ( Class B) .5 joint surface inspection should be carried out, according to JB4730 standard test qualified index (10.8.4) A, RT: 100% Ⅱ grade container qualified, qualified local Ⅲ grade; B, UT: 100% Ⅰ qualified container level, local Ⅱ level qualification; C, PT, MT: regardless of all, the local average grade Ⅰ qualified (original no provisions). 6, repeat testing - refers RT UT ditto (10.8.2.1.5) of this concept by the United States against the proposed nuclear vessel, GB150-98 not considered appropriate to make clear that, according to the design by the designer container entirely specific circumstances.
Ten, pressure test and tightness test (10.9) 1, the test pattern according to the principles prescribed pressure test (hydraulic pressure test or pressure test) or increased air tightness test. Must have the same range of pressure gauges both qualified. Container has opening reinforcement rings, should pass into the air before the pressure test to check the quality of welded joints .2 0.4 ~ 0.5MPa, hydraulic test (10.9.4) 1) Test medium: General water, on the A stainless steel Cl-≤25mg / L; 2) test pressure: PT = 1.25p [σ] / [σ] t (3.8.1) or PT = 1.25PW (B4.1) 3) test conditions and methods (10.9.4.3-4) 3, pressure test (10.9.5) pressure test shall be safety measures, security measures should be clear and effective. The test pressure by PT = 1.15 p [σ] / [σ] t (3.8.1) or PT = 1.15PW (B4.1 ) regulations. Also note that the pressure test conducted .4 medium temperature, air tightness test (10.9.6) extremely hazardous or highly hazardous media container tightness test should be done. tightness test pressure, the media should be marked on the pattern clear container is subject to passing the test can be carried out after the hydraulic tightness test (GB150-98 in 3.10 with the requirements of 10.9.6 are different).
XI, container factory requirements (10.10) 1, requires a random file) product certification 2) container specification (including container builts) 3) quality certificate 2, requires three container designer, paint containers, packaging, transportation requirements (by JB2536) GB151-99 "shell and tube heat exchangers," the former State quality and Technical Supervision in 1999 issued February 26, requiring 1 January 2000 implementation.
A total of 10 Appendix 7 (4 standard, 6 prompt type) First, the scope of the following conditions applies to any fixed tube plate, floating head, U-tube heat exchanger function and packing design, manufacture inspection and acceptance .1, when nominal diameter DN DN≤ 2600mm rolled inside diameter; DN outer diameter of the pipe; 2, nominal PN≤35MPa, PN≥0.1MPa, vacuum degree higher than 0.02MPa3, DN × PN = 1.75 × 10⒋4, the design temperature range allowed by the metal material shall not apply to the use of temperature to determine a heat exchanger, the direct flame heating and waste heat boiler heat exchanger 2 by nuclear radiation heat exchanger 3, asked to do fatigue analysis Heat 4, have been under the jurisdiction of other industry standard heat exchanger, such as refrigeration, sugar, paper, beverage and other industries in some special heat two, the main heat exchanger pipe end box combination of components, housing and backend structure (including tubes) three, fabrication, inspection and acceptance (6) a heat exchanger main pressure classification of welded joints with components GB150-98 points A, B, C, D four kinds of 2, cylinder ( 6.2) 1) inside diameter tolerance: the outer perimeter of the deviation 0 ~ 10mm2) ovality e≤0.5% DN DN≤1200mm, e≤5mm; DN> 1200mm, e≤7mm
3) straightness deviation of L / 1000 (L- barrel length) L≤6000mm △ L≤4.5mmL> 6000mm △ L≤8mm3, tubes (6.3) 1) with a butt weld tubes, straight pipe not more than one U-shaped tube not more than two, the shortest length of the tube ≥300mm; 2) counterparts wrong side ≤15% δ and ≤0.5mm; 3) RT less than 10% and less than 1; 4) welded pipe should be carried out by the root hydraulic test Pt = 2P; 4, the tube plate (6.4) 1) tube plate butt joints shall be 100% RT or UT; 2) In addition to stainless steel, should be made after the splice tube sheet heat stress relief; 3) Minimum Thickness: When Expansion δ≥d. (Outer diameter tubes) welding δ≥12mm5, tube box, floating head cover 1) Butt partakers drive partition header and floating head cover and header lateral openings than the inner diameter of 1/3 headers, should be carried out after welding stress relief heat treatment (except A stainless steel); 2) equipment flange sealing surface should be in the heat treatment process; 6, the pressure test sequence and test pressure a) of the fixed tube plate: a shell pressure test b Pressure test tube 2) floating head: a test carried out by a dedicated floating head pressure ring and pressure testing tools
Tube head pressure test; b tube pressure test; c shell pressure 3) Test pressure: Hydraulic: Pt = 1.25p [σ] / [σ] t Pressure: Pt = 1.15p [σ] / [σ] t7, nameplate content ① name and license number of the unit; ② serial number; ③ product name; ④ product drawing number or device tag; ⑤ Model; ⑥ baffle spacing; ⑦ design temperature (tube / shell); ⑧ design pressure (tube / shell); ⑨ test pressure (tube / shell); ⑩ category; ⑾ weight; ⑿ date of manufacture; ⒀ supervisory inspection mark.